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Geo Slope Crack LINK.rar


Rill erosion occurs when runoff water forms small channels as it concentrates down a slope. These rills can be up to 0.3m deep. If they become any deeper than 0.3m they are referred to as gully erosion.




Geo Slope Crack.rar


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For example, a waterfall may form, with runoff picking up energy as it plunges over the gully head. Splashback at the base of the gully head erodes the subsoil and the gully eats its way up the slope.


AbioticsThe Abiotic Factors are all the terrain features that can influence your scatter-system, they are essential to give credibility and realism to your virtual world. Especially if you are scattering landscapes! Elevation, slope, curvature, orientation, watershed, Geo-Scatter got everything that is needed.


Landslides account for a significant proportion of the geohazards that occur in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGR) of China, potentially causing severe damage to both buildings and city infrastructure (Cascini et al. 2009; Du et al. 2013; Li et al. 2010; Zhou et al. 2014). Most slow-moving landslides deform gradually through phases of episodic acceleration and deceleration corresponding to seasonal rainfall, water level fluctuations at the toe of the slope, and/or changes in material properties within the shear zone (Zangerl et al. 2010). These characteristics make slow-moving landslides difficult to detect, and as a result, constructing new roads, buildings, and tourist resorts in areas prone to slow-moving landslides is risky.


Most reactivated slow-moving landslides in the TGR are characterised by slip surfaces that are generated by shear displacement (Picarelli 2007). The total shear displacement of slow-moving landslides may consist of a plastic shear displacement and a creep component (Mansour et al. 2011; Van Asch 1984). While the creep component is linked to changes in the hydrological boundary conditions, such as the rate of rainfall (Matsuura et al. 2008) and groundwater flow (Cascini et al. 2010; González et al. 2008; Van Asch and Malet 2011; Wang et al. 2008c), it is predominantly governed by the creep properties of the soil in the shear zone. Since the shear zone soil in a reactivated slow-moving landslide has already reached a residual state, any subsequent creeping movement is governed by the drained residual strength (Skempton 1985; Stark et al. 2005; Stark and Hussain 2010b, 2012). This fact can be evidenced by comparing theoretical and actual landslide creep profiles using a model proposed by (Yen 1969). By using the residual strength for shear creep, this model provided the best prediction of creep velocity validated by field measurements (Van Asch 1984). Therefore, in a creep analysis, it is necessary to investigate the creep properties of the shear zone soil under residual strength conditions. Landslide movement in the TGR, however, is usually characterised by alternating creep and dormant phases (Miao et al. 2014), which correspond to accelerating and decelerating periods of creep, respectively (Wang et al. 2008b). During the creep phase, the weight of the slope overburden is the fundamental driving force of landslide movement. In the dormant phase, shear strength regain may occur in the soil; often, the magnitude of the regained strength is time-dependent (Stark and Hussain 2010a; Bhat et al. 2013a). However, the influence of the periodic dormant phases on the creep behaviour of the landslide shear surface remains unclear.


The Huangtupo landslide lies on a hill-slope facing the Yangtze River valley, 10 km east of Badong County, as shown in Fig. 1. The geological formations from which this landslide developed are known locally as the Badong Formation (T2b2 and T2b3). The landslide mainly consists of irregular alternations of mudstone, pelitic siltstone, argillaceous limestone, and limestone (Deng et al. 2000; Tang et al. 2015a; Wang et al. 2014). The crown of the landslide is located at approximately 600 m.a.s.l., while the toe ranges from 50 to 90 m.a.s.l.. The toe is submerged in the Yangtze River with water levels varying from 145 to 175 m as regulated by the Three Gorges Dam. The landslide covers a total area of 1,358,104 m2 and has a volume of nearly 69,107 m3; therefore, it is the largest reservoir landslide in the TGR.


The Huangtupo landslide is a complex mass formed by multiple slumps that occurred over a period of at least 40,000 years (Tang et al. 2015b). On the surface, the landslide is divided by the Sandaogou Valley into two groups of sliding masses. Each group is composed of two sliding masses, one above the other, with additional recent sliding masses developing adjacent to the edges of the landslide. The lower slope sliding masses, Riverside Slump I and Riverside Slump II, are adjacent to the Yangtze River; their toes are submerged in the river, and their crowns are overlain by the younger Garden Spot Landslide and Substation Landslide, respectively. The Riverside slumps are chaotic slump masses consisting of either loose or dense soil and rock debris that originated from grey pelitic limestone and grey limestone (Wang et al. 2014). Figure 2 shows the geological profile of Riverside Slump I.


Previous studies conducted on the Huangtupo landslide, focus on subjects such as its soil properties (Jiao et al. 2014; Wang et al. 2012), stability (Cojean and Caï 2011), formation mechanisms (Deng et al. 2000), triggering factors (Wang et al. 2014), and kinematic features (Tang et al. 2015b; Tomás et al. 2014). Despite these detailed investigations, landslide movement under various hydraulic boundary conditions represents one of the most pressing concerns for slope failure prevention and control. Based on three sets of radar data, Tomás et al. (2014) reported that the upper part of the slope is affected by seasonal displacements caused by rainfall, while the lower part of the slope is affected by water fluctuations in the Yangtze River. Furthermore, whereas Riverside Slump I exhibits predominantly downward movements that range from very slow (17.2 mm/year) to extremely slow (12.8 mm/year), the other landslides are relatively stable. The definition for describing the rate of movement of a landslide can be found in literature (IGUS/WGL 1995; Mansour et al. 2011).


Recently, the first comprehensive 3-D field-testing site has been constructed, including investigation tunnels beneath the landslide and monitoring systems on the slope surface (see Fig. 2), enabling the study of the kinematic features of the Huangtupo landslide (Tang et al. 2015b; Wang et al. 2014). In situ GPS monitoring has indicated that Riverside Slump I is steadily creeping, with a maximum deformation direction towards 20 northeast and a rate of approximately 15 mm/year (Tang et al. 2015b), as shown in Fig. 3a. This slow creep rate had previously allowed the landslide to deform undetected within the area chosen for the site of old Badong. In the years following the construction of old Badong, landslide movements caused damage to both buildings and infrastructure, and the number of seriously damaged houses steadily increased.


Analysis of Fig. 14 reveals that the dormant phase can significantly increase the creep threshold stress. Although this regained strength may be lost after a certain amount of creep displacement, a relatively low creep rate will remain until sufficient displacement occurs on the shear surface of the soil. Additionally, at each stress ratio, the creep rate recorded under an effective normal stress of 508 kPa is greater than that recorded under an effective normal stress of 300 kPa. This result implies that the shear zone material may be more likely to exhibit fluid-like behaviour under a higher normal stress level. Correspondingly, the deeper shear zone of the Huangtupo slope accounts for a greater proportion of the creep deformation than the shallow sections of the shear zone. Jian and Yang (2013), who provided additional references used in the present study, have reported similar results.


The long-term strength (τv) is defined as the ultimate strength observed in a creep test and corresponds to the maximum shear stress at which the creep curve decreases in constant slope and no failure is observed within the material. A shear stress above the long-term strength will drive non-attenuating creep and may eventually result in a failure. Microscopically, the long-term strength is the minimum strength under which the interparticle contacts are progressively breaking, which can lead to particle rearrangement and ultimately result in failure. This time-dependent loss in material strength is different from the loss of strength from peak to residual strength, which is the minimum strength controlled by the particle orientation after a large shearing displacement (Jiang and Wen 2015). 350c69d7ab


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